Preparation, Is It In You?

Backups aren’t just for databases.

BitLocker Blowup

Are you ready for the BitLocker of Doom?

Back in 2012, I started on a journey of sharing my technical knowledge by giving technical presentations. Now this might scare the living jeepers out of most people, but I found it exciting and fulfilling. Since then, I try to speak at ten events a year. Recently, I had the opportunity to speak the most awesome SQL Saturday Houston. Everything lined up for this to be a slam dunk. I was scheduled to give a presentation on Entity Framework, a presentation that I had given many times including the PASS Summit last year.

The afternoon before the event I was in my hotel room about to rehearse the presentation one more time. I take out my laptop, hit the power button, and nothing. It doesn’t boot, it just sits there. I whip out the power cord, plug it in to the laptop and it boots! Disaster averted. As it turns out the battery totally failed. Now, I could have used the laptop as is and everything would have gone just fine but I pulled out a second laptop, started it up, and rehearsed from that. I didn’t have to install anything. I didn’t have to restore a database or move files. I just opened Visual Studio, SSMS, and PowerPoint and I was ready to go. When you’re a speaker you need to be ready for anything, especially hardware problems.

So in celebration of my near disaster here are some of my tips for a disaster proof presentation.


It’s going to happen at some point. Your machine is going to die. Sad but true. You don’t know when, you don’t know when. So have a second machine ready when you present. Have all of your demos and decks ready to go before you walk on stage. I like to put the second machine in sleep mode so that if I have to switch to it, it’s up in seconds. If you don’t have a spare laptop lying around, see if you can borrow one from work or from a friend. Although now that I think about it, if a friend is going to let you borrow a laptop that’s a great friend. You should take them to a nice dinner.


I’m finding file synchronization service like Dropbox or OneDrive invaluable these days. These services serve three functions: 1. Puts a copy of your files in the cloud. I hear backups are good. 2. Allows you to share your files between different machines. 3. Allows you to share and collaborate with others. That’s all well and good, but the short of it is that when you use these services when you update a file on one machine, it will sync the changes to another. So when you update that PowerPoint presentation or that demo script you can be sure it will make it to your demo machine.


Ah, the infamous demo failure. It’s the bubonic plague of technical conferences. Don’t fall victim to this epidemic. Wash your hands after…wait, that’s not it. Create a backup presentation that has screenshots of your demo. This way when the demo plague hits you can make a nice easy transition to your backup deck with the screenshots like a pro. Some presenters have even recorded their demos and used the videos as a backup. Sounds like a good way to spoof cloud presentations if you ask me.


This may be overkill but hear me out. This is your last line of defense. The line must be drawn here! This far, no further! When all else fails, this is your secret weapon. You now have a portable copy of your presentation. Beg to use someone’s machine, pop in the thumb drive, and you go get ’em tiger!

Brent says: at a recent conference, another speaker was struck by disaster in the prep room: his video card died. I handed him my spare laptop, and off he went. So don’t just think of your spare as your own spare – it can help others, too.

We Are Ready For Risk-Taking Presenters

June 2, 2011. I woke up around 5:00 AM, got dressed, left my cruise ship cabin and went downstairs to find a place to write about the dream I’d just had: A database murdered. Suspects isolated together on a ship. Technical sleuthing.

I knew immediately this was a presentation I needed to give. It would be a huge departure from anything I’d done before. And I wanted to do it on the biggest stage I knew of: the PASS Summit.

My first delivery in 2013 (left), and at the 2015 PASS Summit (right)

My first murder mystery session at the 2013 SQLSaturday in Denver (left), and at the 2015 PASS Summit in Seattle (right)

Four and a half years later, I did exactly that; I presented SQL Server Mystery Hour: Dead Reports Don’t Talk at the PASS Summit. It’s been a couple of months since the Summit; the euphoria has worn off, and I want to share some of the risks I took — both in getting there and delivering the session — and why that matters to you as a presenter (or potential presenter).

Risks i’m glad i took

Field Testing: I had to run this session several times before feeling reasonably confident I could do it at the Summit. That meant delivering it at SQL Server User Group meetings and SQLSaturdays. They didn’t always go well — sometimes I was done in 45 minutes (too quickly), sometimes I read my lines very obviously just so I didn’t miss something important. I had to learn what worked and what didn’t, and the only way to find out was to do it live.

Call for Speakers: I started submitting my SSRS mystery session to events in 2012, but I also submitted conventional sessions at the same time. I was competing with myself as well as all the other abstracts in that track. This year, if selected, would be my fifth year speaking at the PASS Summit. I hoped my established speaker history might make the Program Committee trust me with a more off-beat abstract (as long as it was well-written). I decided to go all-in this year and submit nothing but murder mystery abstracts. Attempting to up my chances, I did some A/B testing by not explicitly titling them all mysteries (compare the SSRS abstract with this one: Living and Dying by Dynamic SQL). I was incredibly fortunate to get two of them selected for the 2015 Summit.

(Honestly, I’m still shocked they trusted me twice.)

Multimedia: I got a lot of positive comments on the A/V aspect of it. Both sessions begin with a faux Skype call from the CEO (the one and only Buck Woody!) explaining the situation. The SSRS mystery ends with a dramatic re-enactment video featuring the perpetrator. There’s background music while attendees discuss the case. I think that went well and hopefully made the session (and its content) more memorable.

Casting: For a mystery like this to go smoothly, I can’t do all the talking or recap suspect interviews. I have to do them live. I got experienced speakers to fill the cast: Mark Vaillancourt, Jes Borland, Mickey Stuewe, Jason Strate, Gina Meronek, Bill Fellows, Hope Foley, Jason Horner, and Allen White. There’s no way I could have pulled it off without their help. (Thank you, cast!)

risks i wish I had mitigated

Rehearsal: Even though I chose experienced speakers to be the suspects, the sessions felt unpolished to attendees. For SQL Saturdays and user group meetings (where I have audience volunteers read the parts), unpolished is okay. At a major conference, I needed to do more to make sure we didn’t stumble through lines. It’s on me to make sure that, as busy as other speakers are with their own sessions, we get together — if only once briefly — to run through our lines together.

Having said that, spontaneity created the most memorable moments — Mark Vaillancourt’s stream of puns, Jes Borland’s unicorn-flipping exit, and a joke that had Mark crying just a few minutes into the session.

Outline and notes taken during my first dynamic SQL mystery.

Outline and notes taken during my first dynamic SQL mystery. Discussion gaps were problematic right away.

Not planning the gaps well enough: There are breaks in between each chapter of the mystery where attendees turn to each other and discuss the clues and interviews they just saw. This can result in dead time if the groups either veer off-topic or just don’t talk much. I need to do a better job of keeping things on track, perhaps by shortening those discussion intervals.

Pushing the Networking Aspect: The abstract defines the murder mystery as part technical presentation, part networking event. I had roughly 80 and 50 attendees for the two sessions. This was great because people who showed up were willing to talk to others. However, I could have toned down the networking angle and gotten more attendees without their expectations.

risks i wish i had taken

Slide Decks: Before presenting at the PASS Summit, I had given the SSRS session several times at user group meetings and SQL Saturdays. Each time, I’d done them without any supporting slides. No bullet points, no summary slides. The only reasons I needed a projector at all were for the demo and re-enactment video at the end.

At the Summit, I panicked a little and decided not to go with an empty deck. I saw this as a make-or-break year for my mystery sessions and I wasn’t willing to risk screwing it up by forgetting material. I also didn’t want to risk getting skewered by attendees for not having bullet points to follow. I’m not afraid of that anymore (and I shouldn’t have been in the first place, honestly).

Marketing: I went out of my way to say as little about myself and my real-life company as I could. There was already some chatter about the free magnetic poetry we were giving away and I didn’t want to make any more waves. I removed the About Me slide from my decks and didn’t mention my BlitzRS script, even though it would’ve been a natural fit (and of some benefit) to those in my SSRS session. I did have SQL Sleuth badge ribbons that I offered to people for having come to the session, but those don’t advertise anything except the session itself. In hindsight, I could’ve left the About Me slides in without any fuss.

we are ready for risk-takers and storytellers

Whether it’s a user group presentation or a major worldwide conference, our SQL Server community has settled into a comfortable spot regarding session format. The expectation is we sit in a crowd and give a speaker our attention for 60-75 minutes. We take notes, maybe mention something about the session on twitter. That’s perfectly all right.

But what would happen if we took more risks with that model, or broke from it entirely? I found at least one way it can be done. There’s another group who’s been doing something similar (for much longer than I have), presenting a collection of short stories — with demos even! — and the audience absolutely loves it.

We need more storytellers. Audiences love storytellers.

Be a storyteller.

Weaving technical details into a story makes your content memorable for months after it’s delivered. If you have the technical topic in mind but need help with the storytelling or how to convey the material more memorably, read these books:

I’m only beginning to transition from presenter to storyteller. I’m still looking for ways to make the content I share stick in your mind long after the session is over. I’ve found these books to be invaluable and will be working more of their concepts into my 2016 talks.

risks are risky — what if I bomb?

You’ll always be taking risks, but preparation and practice will mitigate the largest ones. You can prepare alone, but if you’re going to try something our community has never seen before, you need to practice with a real-live audience. Find a user group to present to; that’s about as low-stakes as you can go while still having your target audience. If sixty minutes of daring is too much, try thirty. Try ten. Just give it a shot. From there, you’ll get feedback on what works and what doesn’t. Even if you bomb, it won’t hurt much, and you will be closer to realizing your vision.

Stories want to be told

There wasn’t a single day out of the 1,610 days between conception and realization that I didn’t think about this mystery session. I couldn’t get it off my mind. Instead of me having the idea, it’s like the idea chose me — I was just along for the ride.

Is there an idea, a story that has you captivated? Something nagging that won’t let you rest? Stop trying to rest.

Write it!

Accept that you will have to take risks. Know that the risks are worth it. Tell us a story the way only you can. We’re ready for you to take risks.

What Gear Do I Need to Make Technical Videos?

Today, I’m going to answer the #1 question I get when it comes to making technical videos: “What gear do I need to make my own videos?” I’ve put together three lists based on different levels of experience and production quality. These lists cover gear only, not essentials of producing a high-quality video, so keep in mind the more high-end list won’t create better results unless you have the skills to go along. This list also assumes you’ll be shooting in an indoor space (as opposed to shooting outdoors or on location).

Before you go shopping

You need to ask one very important question before you open your wallet:

Are you planning to shoot studio VIDEOS, WEBCAST, or both?

Making studio videos means:

  • More attention on you (or your props) as the presenter
  • Increased importance on visual elements like lighting, scenery, and depth of field
  • More eye contact expected as you present

Making webcast-style videos means:

  • More attention on the content shared on screen and less on you as the presenter
  • Decreased importance on lighting and scenery
  • Less frequent eye contact is okay

webcast (left) vs. studio style (right)

Your choice(s) here will drive what equipment you need to buy in order to produce a high-quality video on a reasonable budget. You don’t want to overspend on lighting and camera equipment if you’re never going to be shown bigger than a 240×180 pocket in the corner. Likewise, you may not need a USB microphone if you’re going to shoot mostly studio video.

Entry Level (< $250 budget)

This list is for you if you’re just trying out technical videos, not sure you want to make a significant investment, and are willing to buy better gear later on.


Your smartphone or tablet. No, really! Virtually any smartphone made in the last three years will have a camera capable of at least 720p video. This is perfectly good as a starting point, and it costs you nothing except a grip to hold it (like this one) and a tripod to mount it on.


Unless you want to rely on natural ambient light (subject to weather and time of day), you definitely need additional light sources you can move around. Fluorescent light kits are inexpensive, easy to work with, and don’t get burning hot even after hours of use. While softboxes are great for dispersing light evenly, avoid them at this price point unless you don’t intend to take them down. Low-end softboxes are very fragile, and repeated setup and takedown will shorten their lifespan considerably. I recommend you get a light kit with umbrellas instead.

Audio Recorder

Depending on your camera, you may be able to capture audio directly using an input jack and external microphone. This is very likely the case with your smartphone or tablet. If you decide to go with the webcam instead, whatever you use to record the webcam video should accept a USB microphone.


Anything, and I mean ANYTHING is better than the on-board mic of whatever you’re filming with. This is true of even the higher-end cameras. You want people to hear you, not your surroundings. On-board mics are omnidirectional, meaning they don’t focus in on any single direction.

You can go a couple of different ways depending on how much moving around you intend to do. If you’re going to be relatively stationary, a lavalier (lapel) mic will work well, even at a longer distance from the camera. The Polsen MO-PL1 lavalier microphone can be plugged into your computer or smartphone and has a generous 12-foot cord. If you are going to be moving your arms a lot and don’t want the mic to get bumped by your shirt, a shotgun mic is the way to go — something like the Rode VideoMic Go.

Enthusiast (< $1,000 budget)

This list is for you if you are:

  1. Reasonably confident in your commitment to making videos
  2. Willing to make a significant but not semi-professional level investment in equipment, and not interested in upgrading gear for a while

As soon as you leave the entry-level space, equipment costs escalate quickly. Production quality will be easier to improve because you’ll have more control over the audio and video capture process. Your gear will likely hold up a little better too.


You can go a few different ways here, buying either a camcorder like the Canon Vixia HF 600, a compact digital camera like the Canon PowerShot ELPH 300, or a DSLR camera. The camcorder will have one big advantage over the compact digital — a rotating LCD screen. Having a LCD screen you can see while you’re in front of the camera is a big time-saver because you get instant feedback on the framing of your shot. Without one, you won’t know if the top of your head was cut off in the shot until you record and play back. Make sure you get a camera that can shoot 1080p; most cameras are capable of that these days.

If you time your purchase right, you may be able to get an even better camera like a Canon T5i DSLR for just a little bit more than a compact digital camera. If you get that chance, pounce on it. The T5i and T6i offer high quality and user-friendly operation while giving you more creative control over your video.


For this level of investment, it’s worth getting better quality lights that will last longer during operation and survive repeated setup and breakdown. You probably also want to move from umbrellas to softboxes, which distribute light more evenly and produce less edgy light than umbrellas. The more of you that needs illumination, the bigger your softbox should be. Unless you’re doing close-ups, get at least a 24″ softbox, like these softboxes & lights from Interfit.


Like the entry-level setup, your choice of microphone depends on your own movements in your videos. If you aren’t going to move around much, you can go with a lavalier like the Sony. If you plan on moving your arms a lot or can’t be wired, the Sennheiser MKE 400 is a shotgun mic you can mount directly to the top of your camera.

Semi-Professional (< $2,000 budget)

This list is for you if you want to make videos with outstanding production quality, and are willing to invest in equipment for the long haul.


You don’t need to overspend to get an outstanding camera capable of sharp, colorful video at 1080p. The Canon Rebel T6i is the latest in a long line of T_i cameras that are incredibly popular among YouTube personalities for their ease of use and beautiful images. Seriously, there are YouTube celebrities with 100k+ subscribers that swear by them and are still using models as old as the T3i. They’re that good, and they’re very affordable.


It’s worth getting a light kit that allows you more control over how much light is produced, beyond just moving them closer or farther away from you. Get fixtures that have a dimmer switch, or in the case of fluorescent lights (that can’t be dimmed), multiple switches to turn some lights in the bank off. Having more control over light output will be helpful if you’re going to be doing chromakey (blue or green screen) work. The Flolight 110HM3 kit is a good option.

Audio Recorder

At this point, you’re better off not capturing audio directly to the camera, but instead to a separate device and then synching the audio in your editing application. The tradeoffs of having to sync audio are totally worth it. A dedicated audio recorder will have more options than your camera for adjusting the sound as it comes in. Higher-end microphones use something called phantom power, which simply means the recording device will supply the power to the mic (just like a USB device pulls power from the computer it’s plugged into). They also use XLR cables: thicker cables that are resistant to electrical interference. DSLR cameras don’t accept XLR inputs (roughly the size of a penny — too big) and even if they did, the input jack wouldn’t have enough juice to supply phantom power. Plus, you can have your audio recorder much closer to you than the camera, so your lavalier cord doesn’t have to reach all the way back to your camera.

With all this in mind, your best bet is to go for a portable audio recorder that accepts XLR inputs, like the Zoom H4n or Tascam DR-60D mkII.


With XLR inputs, you can go with a lavalier microphone, or with a shotgun mic mounted on a boom pole. With a lavalier, you don’t have to worry about the mic being in the shot because it’s perfectly normal to have it visible. With a boom-mounted shotgun mic, you can get it just outside the frame and still pick up great sound while having a little more freedom of movement than you get with a lavalier. Much more so than with the entry-level and enthusiast gear, the audio you capture will be crisp and clear. For a lavalier mic, a good option is the Sony ECM-44B. I used a shotgun mic, the Sennheiser MKE 600 (connected to the Tascam DR-60D) for my T-SQL Level Up videos and I love it.

Webcaster (< $500 budget)

If you prefer to make videos where you’re only a small part of the picture, you can get by with a smaller budget, especially for video. Proper lighting and clean audio are still important.


Go with the Logitech C930 webcam, especially if you’re on a Mac. The C920 has a nice picture but the software is only officially offered for PCs, not Macs. Both the C920 and C930 are 1080p capable.


Like the entry-level setup, a simple pair of lights and umbrellas will do the trick. Softboxes can be a little intense if you’re sitting at a desk and have them aimed right at you.

Audio Recorder

Whatever software you’re using to capture video and screen sharing will also capture audio. No need to buy a standalone device unless you choose to get a mic with an XLR connection.


The Blue Yeti is has excellent sound, provided you don’t aim it across a room. It’s wonderful for desktop recording from either mounted on the included base or hanging from a boom arm and shock mount. It connects using a USB cable, so no special connection is necessary.

What about software?

If you’re planning on doing any screen sharing, whether it’s flipping through PowerPoint slides or running a demo in a command prompt, you need something to record what’s happening on your desktop. The easiest option here is to get an application like Camtasia or Screenflow. Both have free trials, so test them out and see which one works for you. For what it’s worth, QuickTime has the ability to record desktop activity but from there, you still have to pull it into an editing app. Camtasia and Screenflow allow you to both capture and edit in the same app.

If you’re not doing any screen capture, you can go with the built-in applications for your operating system — either Windows Movie Maker or iMovie. Both are capable (though their features are limited) and easy to get the hang of. If you’re ready for a slight step up without going full-on pro with editing software, try Adobe Premiere Elements. It’s very affordable ($100 or less) and has a lot of the features you need without the complexity of Premiere Pro.

For more advanced users, Adobe Premiere Pro and Final Cut Pro (Mac OS only) offer a lot more power and flexibility, but they come at the cost of a much steeper learning curve. I wouldn’t recommend starting with them unless you’re seriously committed to spending the next several years learning the application as you go.

What about 4K?

It’s easy to get excited about making ultra-sharp 4K videos, but I’m here to tell you there’s a lot that needs to happen before you think about investing in a 4K camera. Before getting a camera, you need to:

  1. Decide that making videos is something you want to commit to.
  2. Learn basic lighting and sound skills
  3. Learn basic camera work
  4. Refine your personal style and screen presence
  5. Refine your lighting and sound skills
  6. Refine your camera skills
  7. Upgrade lighting and sound equipment if you have entry-level gear

Plan on these skills taking at least a year, maybe two. The good news is by then, more people will have 4K-ready monitors. And you will have learned enough about video production to make a well-informed decision about which 4K camera is right for you.

No matter where you go, there you are

It’s easy to get carried away with buying video gear. Remember why you’re doing this — to share a message with your viewers. If you focus on great gear but don’t work on your content or delivery, you’ll be wasting your time and money. Don’t massively over-buy; get the gear you need for what you can do today and tomorrow. When your video-making skills have sharpened and it’s truly the gear that’s holding you back, you’ll know precisely what to shop for, and you’ll have some idea if your videos will support a higher budget.

Teaching Tips: Help Your Audience Be Active Learners

Brent Ozar doing his thing

Brent uses handouts to get his audience to optimize queries  as part of his presentation

We teach a lot of courses. In addition to our online training, free webcasts and sessions at major conferences, we also teach mult-day events.

It’s incredibly valuable to keep your audience active. Even when you’re working in a lecture format, you should try to help give your audience moments where it’s natural for them to mentally wake up and shake themselves out of a more passive listening mode.

Don’t worry: this doesn’t require changing much as a speaker. You don’t have to make your audience square dance.

There’s two big benefits to building habits to keep your audience active:

Benefit 1: Active listeners learn more

When the role of a student is limited to passive absorption, it’s easy to get bored and sleepy. The student has to constantly refocus themselves, and that takes effort on their part. By giving students built-in opportunities to be mentally active, you effectively give their brain less work to do.

Benefit 2: Active learners are More Fun to teach

Imagine standing in front of two rooms of people: in one of them, people are slumped over with glazed eyes. In the other, they’re alert, leaning forward slightly, following you with their eyes, and taking notes.

If you’re a very beginning speaker, both rooms may terrify you. That’s OK. But if you’ve got a few sessions under your belt, the room of alert people is probably much easier to work with. You get natural feedback about what they understand and it adds meaning to your experience. It helps you do a better job. You’re less tired at the end and more energized.

That’s why it’s worth it. Here’s how to get it done.

Warm up your audience

Costumes are an option to get audience participation

Be careful wearing costumes, unless you ARE a Jedi Knight (or Doug Lane at a team dinner)

Don’t stand at the front of the room in silence before you get started. Chat with the people who are already there.

It’s OK if this doesn’t come naturally to you. I am very shy and nervous around strangers and small talk is quite difficult for me. You can overcome it! Write down a list of simple questions to ask the audience and even glance at it from time to time so you don’t have to remember:

  • Where are people from?
  • What other sessions have people been to? What was good? (If you’re at a conference)
  • What made them want to attend the session / is there anything they’re looking forward to learning?

Remember to smile. Drawing a smiley face on a post it note somewhere and sticking it on the desk helps, strangely enough. (People won’t even know it’s yours.) Welcome people in as they come into the room casually and let them know you’re glad they’re there. If you’re making eye contact, you’re already helping your audience.

Identify your audience’s job role

One easy question to build into the beginning of your presentation is to ask your audience to identify their job title or job role by raising their hands. Build a simple slide that says, “What’s your job role?” at the top and lists a bunch of options, including “Other”. Ask people to raise their hands when you say their role name out loud. (I usually tell people it’s OK to vote twice if they do more than one thing.)

This is a nearly foolproof method to get most audiences in the United States to interact with you. The question is designed to have no “wrong” answer. It also gives you insight into the background of your audience and their interests.

How many of you would like us to stop stuffing you with desserts?

“How many of you want the email address of the developer who wrote transactional replication?”

It’s possible that in some settings the audience will have a hard time even answering this question. Be ready for that, and understand that it’s not you. This gives you an early tip that you may have an quiet group for cultural or situational reasons, which is very useful for you to know!

Ask questions during your presentation

When you first start speaking, audience participation may be scary. Know that you can get past that: questions and comments from the audience are one of the most fun and rewarding things you can work with as a presenter. They help you work in real-world advice and information and make your presentation relevant.

See this as something to build up to gradually over time. Some easier questions to start with:

  • How many of you have worked with this feature?
  • How many folks have heard of this?
  • I’m about to show a big gotcha where I’m going to do ___. Do any of you think you may know what’s coming?
  • Who thinks they might try this out?

For all of these questions, you need to be comfortable with the fact that nobody may raise their hand. That’s OK! You can say something like, “Great, it sounds like this is going to be new info for most of you.” Take that as useful information. If nobody says they might try it out, ask why in a friendly way.

Here’s a few pitfalls to avoid:

  • If you’ve got a super quiet audience, don’t feel that you have to force the questions or make them interact with you. It’s OK. Go with what feels more natural to you.
  • Avoid the question, “Does this make sense?” I’ve had to train myself out of this one. It’s heard as a rheutorical question by many people and may just fall flat.
  • Also avoid, “Is anyone confused? / Does anyone not follow me?” Unless you’ve got a super-comfortable, confident, close knit group, most confused people will be shy to raise their hands.

I try to be very open about areas that have been very confusing to me in the past, or which may have stumped me for a while. Don’t force yourself to do this, but if you can get comfortable sharing with your audience what has been hard for you, this may help them get over the fear of “being the one to ask the dumb question”.

Give people an activity

I am a huge fan of challenges, quizzes, and interactive activities in our training classes. I’m always trying to think of new ways that I can engage learners to actively think through problems, because I believe that most people learn better when they get to try to solve a problem.

Kendra Polling the Audience

“Who would like to buy a vowel?”

If you’ve got some presenting experience, you can include quizzes and design activities into your sessions. This does involve some risk taking, because you need to have a way to get people comfortable working together. I like to keep group activities short and give people a clear mission, then meet up again right away as a group to dive back into the class learning, but there’s many ways to do this.

Take breaks. No really, take breaks.

As a presenter, you need breaks. So do your attendees. Getting up and moving around on a regular basis helps people focus. Don’t feel like people are better off if you blast them with learning non-stop: they aren’t!

If you’re presenting with a laptop, you can make it easier for your attendees to relax and laugh during the break. We like to put DBA reactions up on the screen in auto refresh mode during breaks.

Alternate Speakers (if you Can)

We often have multiple speakers for our longer training sessions. This is helpful to us as speakers, but it also helps the audience. Changing up between different people with different presentation styles, manners of speaking, and movement helps people learn actively if you can do it.

Humor is an advanced feature

One of the best ways to keep your audience active is to make them laugh. Laughing wakes people up, gets some fresh air to their brain, and gives the audience a sense of togetherness.

But, uh, this ain’t easy. I’ve had to accept that I’m the funniest when I don’t mean to be. If I want to get good laughs out of the audience, I just need to use some of the methods above to help the audience learn actively. If that’s happening and I’m comfortable being my geeky self, I’ll get some great laughs out of them, and we’re all happy.

You can do this!

Whatever stage of presenting you’re at, you can improve your skills at helping your audience learn actively. If you’re just starting out, it’s ok: first just get comfortable being on stage, then start adding these in gradually.

And if you’re sitting in the audience, wondering what it’s like to be on stage, why not take a chance and try it out?

Alaska has a SQL Server User Group!

Alaska is on the PASS map!

Alaska is on the PASS map!

I’m really stoked to share the news: Alaska (my home state) finally has a PASS Chapter of its own! The group just got started last December, and officially welcomed into the PASS organization at the end of January. While they don’t have a Facebook or Twitter account yet, they do have a website and a YouTube channel.

The group meets every month and draws about twenty attendees, according to Chapter Leader Greg Burns. (Greg also runs the local SharePoint user group, which has about eighty members.) The audience is a mix of DBAs and developers, mostly.

Curious. Why would I mention the audience?

Because Greg is running a PASS Chapter for the first time, he could use a lot of help. He’s looking for speakers — remote or in-person — to present at upcoming meetings. If you’re interested in presenting to the group remotely, or just looking for an excuse to visit by far the largest state in the union…[prolonged eye contact with Texas]…just drop Greg a line at AlaskaSQL(at)

But wait, there’s more! If you’re a current or former PASS Chapter leader, you probably have some great tips on how to structure meetings, build membership, advertise your group, line up sponsors, and other things it takes to grow a user group. Rather than flood Greg’s inbox with your collective wisdom, let’s assemble them here in the comments so they’re all in one place. I can think of no better way to welcome Alaska to the SQL Server community than to show them how much we help each other.

51 Questions About Your Conference Session Submission

Jeremiah and I presenting in Atlanta

Jeremiah and I presenting in Atlanta

This weekend, emails went out to folks who’d submitted their sessions for the PASS Summit 2013 in Charlotte.

If you’re bummed, listen up. I know what it feels like to get turned down because I got turned down the first couple of times I submitted, too. The blessing and the curse of the SQL Server community is that there’s so many people who want to help others – but of course this makes it harder to get your place up on the stage. It’s only going to get worse/better as more people continue to discover the community.

Whether you got a good email or a bad one, your work is just beginning. Either you’re prepping for this October, or you need to start prepping for the next conference. In either case, here’s 51 questions you need to ask yourself about your abstract, your material, and your delivery.

  1. What pain is bringing the attendee to this session?
  2. How are they going to relieve that pain when they get back to the office?
  3. What does the attendee know already coming in?
  4. Who should not attend this session?
  5. Reading your abstract, are the answers to the above four questions crystal clear?
  6. What did you learn from Adam Machanic’s post Capturing Attention?
  7. Did your abstract take one thing off before it left the house?
  8. If you search the web for your abstract title, what comes up?
  9. Who else do you expect will submit on a similar topic?
  10. How will you show your own personality and expertise in the abstract?
  11. Of ProBlogger’s 52 Types of Blog Posts, which one matches your planned sessions?
  12. What other types of sessions from that list could you use to surprise and delight attendees?
  13. Are you teaching why or how?
  14. How would a handout make it easier for attendees to learn your lessons?
  15. What visualization would bring your session to life?
  16. Could you contract out a local design student or company to build it for you?
  17. Are you presenting to teach or to impress?
  18. Have you gotten feedback on your abstract from a proven speaker you trust?
  19. If a teacher graded your presentation, would you get an A?
  20. On that 24-point scale, what would it take to succeed at a national conference?
  21. What topics are you going to avoid entirely in order to save time?
  22. How often have you rehearsed this presentation before giving it to a local user group?
  23. Have you given this presentation before at local user groups and SQLSaturdays?
  24. Did you record the session (either video or audio)?
  25. Did you watch the recording to see where you can improve the material and your delivery?
  26. What questions did the attendees ask at those sessions?
  27. What feedback did the attendees give at the user group or SQLSaturday?
  28. How will you use that feedback to improve your session?
  29. If you gave attendees a test at the end of your session, what questions would be on it?
  30. If your session was a movie, what genre would it be?
  31. What other movies would be sitting next to it in the store?
  32. Who would play the leading role?
  33. What are three words you want attendees to use to describe your session?
  34. How do your abstract, material, and delivery inspire those three words?
  35. Have you clearly attributed ownership to the code and pictures in your session?
  36. If nobody asks any questions at all, will you still be able to fill the time slot?
  37. If you get many questions, which slides/sections can you skip without losing meaning?
  38. Where will you post all of the resources for your session?
  39. If people have a question while reading those resources, how will they contact you?
  40. If this session was a module in an all-day training class, what would the other modules be?
  41. What’s the worst thing that could happen in your session?
  42. How will you recover if that thing happens?
  43. Can you form an instant community of your attendees using a Twitter hash tag or chat room?
  44. What would your session look like with no demos whatsoever?
  45. What would your session look like as 100% demos and no slides?
  46. If you started the session with a question, what would that question be?
  47. What’s the easiest, simplest way for the attendee to learn the lessons?
  48. Could you get the presentation’s learning lessons across with a blog post or series?
  49. When you ask people why they linked to your post, what do they say they found compelling?
  50. What questions did readers ask in the comments?
  51. What’s stopping you from writing that blog post right now to gauge reader interest?

No, really. What’s stopping you? Don’t think for one moment that attendees will skip your session because they’ve read your work. It’s the exact opposite: readers come to your session because they like your work. Whether PASS told you yes or no, start writing your blog posts right now to find out what works and what doesn’t.

Write a Note and Shoot Yourself Today

When I’m writing a presentation or blog post, I often start here:

Yep, still the same smile.

2004 Brent

It’s a photo of me in my office in Dallas, Texas in 2004. When I look at that picture, I remember everything like it was yesterday. I can talk at length about everything on the bookshelf, on my desk, in my drawers (the desk drawers, that is).

I can tell you what technology problems I was struggling with, plus what problems my manager was concerned about. I remember what I knew, and what I didn’t know yet. I can recite the web sites I frequented.

Next, I can turn the mental camera around and see exactly what’s outside my office door: my developers and my support team. I can tell you what they rocked at and what they wanted training on. I can remember how we decorated their cubes for their birthdays – covering Julian’s stuff in aluminum foil, building a princess’ castle for Hima.

The funniest thing, though, is that I didn’t remember any of this until I rediscovered this photo several years ago. All of a sudden, everything was clear to me.

And I realized who I was writing for.

Now, it’s really easy for me to scope my presentations and blog posts because I’m writing for 2004 Brent. 2004 Brent hadn’t studied databases and tried to turn them inside out – he just needed to store data and get it back out quickly. He wasn’t on a first name basis with book authors and MVPs – he didn’t even know what an MVP was.

You need to take this picture today.

Set up your camera with a self-timer or get a colleague to shoot a few pictures of yourself sitting in your work environment. Get pictures of the books on your shelf, the stuff on your desk, and maybe take a screenshot of your task list. Write yourself a one-page note covering:

  • The stuff you’re comfortable with
  • The stuff you’re uncomfortable with
  • The things you want to learn this year
  • The things you learned recently that surprised you

Stash these pictures and words away in a time capsule folder somewhere. A few years from now, when you’re writing a presentation covering something you’ve learned, get these back out. Think about what you knew and didn’t know, and that’s your target audience. Before you use a term or acronym, think back and ask, “Did 2013 Me know that? If not, lemme introduce the topic.”

When you’re writing, remember that you’re never writing for your current self. You’re writing for the past version of you. Having these pictures and words will help you define your audience.

Choosing a Presentation Tool

If your New Year’s resolution is to start presenting at user groups and conferences, congratulations! You’re about to embark on a fulfilling journey that will enrich the lives of thousands of people. It’s a blast. Now let’s put some thought into the tool you’re going to use.

You’re going to be working on these same sessions for years – growing them, expanding them, building them into all-day training. Don’t pick a flash-in-the-pan presentation technology that might not be here in a couple of years. Pick the most reliable technology you can find.

If you’re lucky, you can turn your presentations into an entire company. When that happens, you want your employees to be able to give your presentations to clients when possible. Don’t use a hard-to-understand technology – use the simplest, most straightforward way to get your point across.

If you’re unlucky, your laptop will fail right before you walk onstage. Save all your presentations on a USB drive (mine’s on my keychain) so that when disaster strikes, you can turn to the nearest attendee and say, “Mind if I borrow your laptop to present? You’ve got (technology x) on it, right?” Attendees love to say yes, but you’re not going to have the time or bandwidth to download & install new software, and you shouldn’t be installing anything on a stranger’s laptop anyway. I present about Microsoft technologies, so my audience usually has PowerPoint installed. I’ve presented from attendee laptops more than once.

My presentation gear at work. Photo by Michael Kappel.

Use a technology that allows you to move around the stage while advancing slides. When you just get started presenting, you’ll probably stand behind the podium, gripping it tightly, fearing that you’ll fall over if you let go. After a few sessions, you’ll gain the confidence to move around the stage and use positioning just like actors do. You’ll want a technology that lets you use a remote control. I use the $60 Logitech R800 because it’s also got a built-in countdown timer. I can glance down to see how much time I’ve got left, and it vibrates when I start running out of time.

Use a technology that allows for easily exportable, not-easily-editable content. I export my sessions to PDF and give ’em away to attendees. If you give away the native format, some attendees will take your session, edit out your name, and re-present it as their own. Of course, if you’re okay with that (and I am for some of my sessions), then take the other tack – use a technology that your attendees will all have, and will be able to quickly edit and re-present.

The export needs to stand on its own, including in a printed version. If your technology relies on animations to get the point across, and the export doesn’t include the animations, it won’t work. Personally, I do all my animations by having a separate slide for each step. That way even if you’re reading along in a printed handout, you can follow what I’m doing. At all-day training sessions, I’m amazed at how many attendees love following along in a printed copy and writing notes on it. Many attendees don’t have laptops/tablets that can last all day on battery for note-taking, and many conferences don’t have power outlets for every attendee during all-day training sessions.

A couple/few years into your journey, you’re going to be so proud of your chosen technology. You’ll have polished that knife to a sharp edge. At that point, it’s time to step back and pick up a new knife. Try a new tool, and start sharpening that too. The more knives you have, the better chef you’ll be, because different knives work better for different foods.

Every knife technology will fail on you. The slides, the demo code, the services, the remote, the laptop, the projector, the microphone, all of it. If you’ve polished multiple knives, you’ll be completely comfortable when one tool fails. I’ll never forget the time when I was presenting slides via projector about disaster recovery for databases, and midway through my session, the entire conference center’s power went out. I grabbed the whiteboard markers, eager to sketch out the concepts for the rest of the session. Those moments make your reputation as a presenter.

Having said all that, here’s the tools I use:

Text editor – I storyboard my sessions in a text editor first, using one line per slide. I write down the things I need to teach during the presentation, then I start adding and arranging, turning it into a story. When I’m done arranging the story, then I decide which portions need demos, diagrams, pictures, etc. If there’s an overwhelming theme, I try to pick just that one method of delivery. For example, if your session is 80% demos, dump the slides and just put comments in the code. Zoom in onscreen to show those comments in large text. If I can get the entire session delivered in just one tool, it makes the session easier for attendees to digest. If I do have to use two tools (like slides & demos, or slides & whiteboard) then I want to minimize the number of transitions back & forth.

Microsoft PowerPoint – I’m not a big fan of it, but it’s the de facto standard in the MS database world. Many MS conferences require me to use a PowerPoint template, plus I have to upload my slides to them for approval, and they’ll make edits and send it back. This just comes down to knowing your audience and picking a tool all the attendees will have. At our company, we’ve started breaking up our slides into mini-decks that our employees can reuse and present to clients. For example, I might have a 1-hour session on tuning databases, and then rip out two 15-minute sections of that to turn into mini-decks. When a client has a question and there’s a minideck to answer it, the employee can whip it out and give the client the best answer possible.

Demo code – think of this as a standalone presentation tool. If you can do a whole session in here (including the title, about-me slide, and resource slide), do it.

Whiteboard – I’ve always casually used this knife to handle attendee Q&A live, but I’m starting to polish it. I’m picking between iPad teaching tools to find one that lets me zoom in & out, record the session, write with a keyboard, etc. I want to get to the point where I can deliver a 1-hour session entirely via iPad whiteboard projected onscreen, and get good feedback from the attendees that it was the best way to learn a particular concept.

Want more tips like this? Check out our past presenting posts.

How We Write

The four of us were talking about the writing tricks we use, and we thought you might enjoy hearing our styles.

How Brent Writes

I use to track my blog post ideas.  I can use it from anywhere via a web browser, phone app, whatever.  I can tell when I’m in the mood to write because I’ll come up with 4-5-6 blog post ideas in a row in a matter of minutes.  When that happens – and it’s almost always in the morning – I look at the day’s schedule and figure out if there’s a way I can spend a few hours writing.  Seems like it strikes in spurts, too – weeks will go by without me producing a single blog post, and then suddenly I’ll have several days in a row where I just can’t stop sneaking away to write.

I can write anywhere, but I can’t be around people I know, because then I feel guilty for not spending time with them.  (This also means no email and no Twitter.)  This usually means that I grab my laptop or iPad and head to a coffee shop or pub that doesn’t mind me sitting there for hours, banging away.  Right now, my favorite writing place is Kroll’s Bar and Grill in Chicago.

I can only write with music playing on headphones – almost always with just one song on endless repeat.  The music affects the tone of what I write.  Bubbly pop music like Lady Gaga and LMFAO produces fun, relaxed posts like my SQL Server 2008R2 Review and my AlwaysOn Availability Groups introduction.  Client findings seem to work best while listening to Tokyo Police Club’s manic upbeat stuff like Your English is Good and Wait Up.  I wrote all of my chapters for 2008 Internals and Troubleshooting while listening to the long version of Death Cab for Cutie’s I Will Possess Your Heart.  Over.  And over.  And over.

I write in a text editor first.  I stopped using WYSIWYG stuff a long time ago because I got too caught up in presentation rather than content.  The words themselves have to seduce me on the screen, just by themselves, without any makeup.  When I’m pretty happy with what I’ve got, I move it into the final production tool (WordPress, Word, PowerPoint) and then start applying the makeup.

How Jes Writes

Sometimes, I think that I could write non-stop, all day, every day. It wouldn’t always be good writing, and it wouldn’t always have a point, but I can put words down all day long.

I have a list of blog ideas – technical and non-technical – in a OneNote notebook. I put down the topic or the title as soon as it comes to me, and a couple sentences if I have more. The next step is to fire up a Word document and put together an outline. Sometimes, that’s as simple as two or three bullet points. Sometimes, it’s a lot more complicated.

The act of writing requires discipline, mixed with a little inspiration. I try to block off specific times to write – that way, I can’t always put it off until I “feel” like it. Of course, if inspiration hits, I will sit down and bang out as much as I can when it happens. If I’m away from my computer, I usually have a notebook with me (I love Moleskine), and I’ve been known to scribble away and then type it up later.

My environment is very different depending on whether I have a technical or non-technical blog. As I write this, I’m in my office, door open, dog running amok around the house, music playing, laundry going, drinking coffee. If I have a technical topic to write about – especially if it involves code or examples – things are very different. Silence rules. I go in my office, I close the door, I turn on the light, I turn off music, close email and Twitter, open Word and whatever tools I need, and go. I don’t want to be bothered – at all, about anything. I’ll hack away for an hour or two, take a break for a snack, and go back at it. I like to finish technical blogs in as few sittings as possible, so I try to start these on a weekend, or during a week I don’t have a lot of stuff happening in the evenings.

When I’m done, every piece of writing gets set aside for at least a day. Then I re-read and edit it, sometimes a couple of times, and schedule it!

How Jeremiah Writes

As much as it pains me to say it: haphazardly. My process isn’t as disciplined as it used to be (or as disciplined as I’d like it to be). That being said, I’ll outline what I do right now and where I want to be.

I keep track of rough blog post ideas in Remember the Milk. As I flesh out the ideas, I add notes and links to references that will help me flesh out the article. Remember the Milk is critical for my workflow because I can get to it anywhere – ideas don’t happen when you’re sitting in front of the computer. They often strike when you’re at work, on the bus, or stuck in traffic. Being prepared with a lot of different ways to record a good idea is critical to saving that idea for later.

I’ve tried using any number of WYSIWYG editors – they help me agonize over font choice. I’ve tried distraction free editors – they get in the way of working with reference material. When I want to write, I use a text editor. Sublime Text 2 works for me; it has tools for writing prose and tools for writing code. Once I’m in the editor, I draw up a rough title and introductory paragraph – the first paragraph works as an outline. After putting together an outline, I write slugs to draw the reader through the article. It’s after I’ve outlined that I start writing.

I’m a big believer in revision. The first time through an article, I write down my thoughts as quickly as possible while trying to stick to the outline I’ve put together. If there are interesting diversions, I make a note of them and carry on. After the first draft, I let it sit and work on something else.

Clutter is the disease of American writing.

William Zinsser said that. He’s right. During my editing process, I distill my writing. Once I reach minimalism, I build it back up; carefully adding words where they’re needed. I repeat this process several times until I’m as happy as I’m going to be with the results. Whether I’m writing prose or code samples, I use this approach.

Unfortunately, I don’t succeed every time. My least favorite writing is something I produce quickly. I feel that a moment of genius or art has struck and that I can happily push “Publish” and move on to something else. The discipline of revision isn’t there and it shows in the quality of the work – it’s sloppy, jumbled, and dissatisfying. In a perfect world, I could revise each piece three or four times.

My writing process takes time and discipline and is a piece of habit. Great writing doesn’t come from a burst of inspiration, it comes from daily exercise. Relentlessly tuning my prose makes it easier to write something better the next time through.

How Kendra Writes

I admit it: I hate writing sometimes. Writing is very difficult for me. Here’s how I cope.

Mainly, I try to play to my strengths. I have some good skills that I value. I’m really good at a few types of writing, and I’m also a really fast typist. When I’m working in a form of writing I’m good at, I’m much more productive than when I work in a form where I struggle.

Here’s where I shine: I’m great at describing a problem and creating an action plan to solve the problem. I’m a star at documentation and writing up recommendations. I love the balance of trying to add just enough detail and links so that the nuances are clear, without getting so bogged down in detail that the meaning is hidden.

I practice this type of writing a lot in my work. When I write this way, I don’t really need much of anything except my laptop– it’s pretty easy for me to “get lost” in the writing. I tend to stop noticing things around me. I try to remember to stop and drink water or stand up and move around periodically.

Here’s where I struggle: more creative forms of writing. Blog posts are incredibly hard for me. We try to be very thoughtful about blog posts on this site and have a lot of internal discussions about how we can write the best posts possible. It’s just not as simple and straightforward as business writing where you’re out to slay a specific dragon. It’s more about connection and humor and finding meaningful things to share with a much bigger audience.

Here’s what I’ve done to try to make myself better at writing things where it’s hard for me:

  • I don’t force myself to write creatively at very busy or stressful times.
  • I encourage myself to write creatively when I’ve finished my task list for the week or had a great night’s sleep on a weekend morning.
  • I remind myself that I am good at writing, even if some forms are hard for me. (There’s no worse thing for you as a writer than to tell yourself that you’re a bad writer.)
  • I encourage myself to let writing flow creatively in one session, then use another session to go in and edit furiously.
  • I stop writing when I’m still feeling good about it.
  • I save off content in Evernote and periodically pull out older content and work on it again– I don’t set myself a quota for finishing.

I also sometimes get to integrate the forms of writing where I’m strong into the website, too! I created most of the sp_BlitzIndex® documentation in one long afternoon of thinking and writing about indexes– and I’m so proud of it. Those pages would not have made a good blog post, but they’re a way I was able to contribute sharing information in a meaningful and helpful way.

To me, becoming a better writer is all about mindset and strategy. Observe where you’re strong, appreciate what you’re good at, and build from there. Don’t try to write like anyone else, just always strive to write as well as you can.

Our PASS Summit 2012 Schedule

Next week, the Brent Ozar Unlimited® crew will be attending PASS Summit in Seattle, WA. It’s a busy week, full of networking, learning, and teaching. Here are a few of our highlights.

Want to add our sessions to your schedule, and view more information at your fingertips? PASS Summit has gone mobile with Guidebook! It’s available for iOS, Android, Blackberry and web-enabled devices.


8:30 am – 5:30 pm: Brent and Jeremiah will be presenting at Red Gate’s SQL in the City event in Seattle. This is not a SQL PASS event, but if you’re in Seattle on Monday, find out if you can swing by– the event is totally free. Brent will be talking about “Six Scary SQL Surprises” at 10 am. Jeremiah will be talking about code quality in “Red Gate Tools- The Complete Life Cycle” at 11:30 am. Register here.


5:15 pm: We’ll be meeting our First Timers at the Orientation & Networking Session. This is a valuable program from PASS. A first-time attendee at a conference of this size could be overwhelmed. Then we’ll be attending the Welcome Reception, saying hello to old and new friends. What fun and games does Tim Ford have planned for us this year?


6:30 am: Jes will kick off the morning with the second annual #sqlrun, a 5K run along the waterfront. Get info and sign up here.

10:15 am: Jes presents The What, Why, and How of Filegroups. .

11:30 am: Jes is attending the PASS Chapters Luncheon!

1:30 pm: Bob Dylan, er, Brent will give his Lightning Talk, Bob Dylan Explains Tempdb!

3:00 pm: Brent is on deck again, this time with Real-Life SQL Server 2012 Availability Groups: Lessons Learned.

4:30 pm: Jes will be at the PASS Community Zone. This is a new area that will introduce people to all the great community events available. We’ll even have games and prizes! Please stop by, say hi, pick up a game card, and get to know the members of the community!


11:30 am: Kendra is a panelist on the Women in Technology lunch. This great event also features panelists Stefanie Higgins, Kevin Kline, Denise McInerney, and Jen Stirrup. Jes will be sitting at the blogger’s table, capturing the discussion of “Women in Technology: Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going?”

1:30 pm: Jes is presenting “Lights! Camera! Piecemeal Restore!” as one of the Lightning Talks. Come to room 307-308 to watch us.

3:00 pm: Jes will again be in the Community Zone that afternoon.

5:00 pm: We hope you can be in three places at once! Brent will Diagnose T-SQL Performance Problems Fast with sp_Blitz®. Jeremiah is guiding the audience through A Developer’s Guide to Dangerous Queries. And Kendra will have on her lab coat as she presents Index Psychiatry: Diagnose and Treat the Top 5 Disorders.

7:00 pm: Microsoft and PASS are sponsoring the Community Appreciation Party at Seattle’s Experience Music Project!


Friday will wrap up an incredibly exciting week.

11:30 am: Jes will be hosting a table at the Birds of a Feather lunch – the dining hall will be organized into areas of interest, and you’ll be able to network with MVPs, MCMs, speakers, and more. This is a great opportunity to meet other people interested in the same field you are!

1:00 pm: Kendra has a Spotlight Session, SQL Server First Responder Kit.

If you’re attending PASS Summit, enjoy! It’s a great experience, with many hours of learning and many great people to meet. If you can’t attend (this year!), make sure to follow the #sqlpass hashtag on Twitter, and catch the live stream of two rooms from!