In our Senior DBA Class of 2015 session in Denver last week, one of my sessions explained storage tiering, snapshots, and replication using a table of bloggers. Here’s the first ten minutes of it:
To learn more, here’s additional resources:
I’ve seen servers with thousands of databases on a single SQL Server, and it works. Sure, opening the databases list in SQL Server Management Studio is painful, and a lot of third party monitoring tools fall over, but it’s not so bad once you know how to work around these issues.
But there’s two issues you can’t work around: our old archenemies, RPO and RTO. A quick reminder:
- Recovery Point Objective (RPO) – if the server went down right now, where’s the point at which you could recover the data? It’s measured in time, like 1 second of data loss, 1 minute, 1 hour, etc.
- Recovery Time Objective (RTO) – how long will it take you to get the server back online and functional? It’s also measured in time.
Say you’ve got a single stand-alone SQL Server. You’re doing full backups once a day, and those backups take six hours to complete.
The business comes along and says:
- You can’t lose more than 15 minutes of data (RPO)
- The server can’t be down for more than 1 hour (RTO)
In that case, knowing that your backups take six hours, that means your restores are likely going to take at least six hours. If you lose this server (due to hardware failure, storage corruption, Windows patch gone bad, etc), you’re not going to be able to get the databases restored in time.
You have three options: tune your backups and restores to make them go faster, put less data on each SQL Server, or implement a standby server that’s ready to go when disaster strikes.
The real answer to how many databases (and how much data) you can put into SQL Server isn’t a software limitation: it’s a business limitation. Get the RPO and RTO from the business first, put it into our HA/DR planning worksheet, and that will help you figure out if you’ll be able to recover in time.
Kendra says: If you’re asking this question, that’s your first sign that you may have a problem.
Your users probably shouldn’t be able to view all of the data.
You might have regional sales managers who should only see sales for their region, or human resource staff who should be able to see employee details but not salaries.
This is usually challenging with databases.
How We’ve Historically Built Row-Level Security in SQL Server
We modify application code to pass in the user’s name or group name as part of their query, like this:
SELECT * FROM dbo.vwSalesHeader WHERE SalesVisibleTo = ‘MaryJane’
MaryJane doesn’t have to be a Windows or SQL authentication account – it can be anything we want to use as a security identifier. Some apps use a UserID number from their Users table, for example.
Then the vwSalesHeader view joins our SalesHeader table out to several other security tables where user names or roles are listed. The SalesHeader table might have a StoreID field, and then we’d have other tables that listed which users could see which StoreIDs.
This approach typically works well (enough) in reporting applications where we can guarantee all access is done through views. However, it isn’t as effective when users and applications are accessing the tables directly – and that’s where the database server needs to handle row-level security.
Serious Security: Enforcing It at the Server Level
If you create database logins for every end user, and the end user is authenticated in the database, then some database platforms can perform row-level security directly against tables.
The really cool part of this approach is that you don’t need to modify your applications – the apps don’t have to access the data via stored procedures or views in order to get row-level security. If you try to read or modify a row (or in some cases, even a column) that you’re not allowed to, the database simply stops you.
PostgreSQL added support for this via Row Security Policies recently in 9.5, and Oracle’s had Oracle Label Security since at least 10g. In all vendor implementations, the database needs a map between users, roles, tables, and rows. PostgreSQL does this with row security policies that let you build any query you want as the check expression. Oracle builds hierarchical security in at the data label level with compartments and groups. Both are radically different approaches, so there’s not really a concern about how Microsoft’s implementation adheres to standards.
How Azure SQL Database Does It
Books Online explains that the v12 preview will let you:
- Create a security predicate function to do the security check
- Create a security policy on a table that points to your new security function
- Enforce that security policy based on whoever’s logged in – without changing their queries
That’s awesome. Instead of this:
SELECT * FROM dbo.vwSalesHeader WHERE SalesVisibleTo = ‘MaryJane’
Your apps can just select from the table directly (or views still if they want):
SELECT * FROM dbo.SalesHeader
And SQL automatically applies the security policy.
That’s my favorite kind of new feature – one that can be introduced without app changes. It’s absolutely wonderful if you’re letting end users connect directly to the database with PowerBI tools like Excel.
I’m not going to write about the full implementation T-SQL here (function and policy creation) because we’re still ahead of the release date, and you can expect these details to change through the course of the release previews.
Server-Level Security Drawbacks
Most modern web and reporting applications use connection pooling with a single database login for all users, and no concern for “execute as user” statements. It’s challenging to run every query in the security context of the end user – especially if you have end users who aren’t in your actual security system. (Think public end users who don’t have Active Directory accounts.) The number of connections from your web/app tier may skyrocket, although most of those connections will end up being idle or disconnected over time. The alternative is to build in dynamic “execute as user” statements in your data access logic, and that’s nowhere near as trivial as it looks.
Plus, enforcing security at the database server level requires adding a security definition field to every secured table. If you’re not allowed to modify the tables, this approach won’t work. I don’t see this as a serious drawback because it’s still less work than modifying your application to work entirely on views and stored procedures.
Performance will suffer no matter how you implement row-level security. In the big picture, I don’t see this as a drawback because you shouldn’t implement it unless you need it, and if you need it, you should be willing to amp up your hardware requirements in order to pay for the additional business logic requirements. There’s no free lunch.
Silent security generates support calls. Anytime the users know that the system is influencing their query results (be it through Resource Governor, dirty reads, simultaneous loads & queries, or row-level security) then they’re going to think their reporting data is wrong/slow/unavailable because your infrastructure is at fault. If this is a concern for you, you can enable auditing of the security policies, but keep in mind that now you’re talking about even more performance impact.
And of course, there’s the obvious gotcha of having to create database users for these roles. In a perfect on-premise world, you don’t really want to create those in SQL Server – instead, you create groups in Active Directory and then in SQL Server. Let your help desk team manage the group memberships of individual users, and only rarely make changes to the groups in SQL Server. (But still, if you’re constantly adding/editing sales regions, and your queries need to be region-aware, you’re going to be constantly making security changes in production, QA, and dev servers.)
In summary, I think row-level security is one of the coolest new engine features I’ve seen in quite a while, and it’s in Azure SQL Database first. It solves a real business pain, and continues to bring Microsoft’s databases closer to feature parity with Oracle and PostgreSQL.
I have a new mission: to convince you, the long-time Profiler user, to switch to Extended Events. I realize I have a long, difficult task ahead of me. Profiler has been around for a long time. You’re comfortable with it. You know it’s not perfect, but you have learned to live with its imperfections. Now I want you to step outside your comfort zone and learn a new tool, with new terminology, a new interface and new capabilities.
I’m going to start with a few reasons for you to consider Extended Events. I want you to think about these things, and if they could make your job easier.
1. The number of events in Profiler has remained the same since SQL Server 2008. The number of events in Extended Events (XE) has more than tripled.
What kind of events are being added to XE, but not Profiler? Events for any new features, such as Availability Groups, In-Memory OLTP, and Windows Azure Storage. You can query sys.trace_events to see which events are available for Profiler, and sys.dm_xe_objects to see the events for XE.
/* Profiler */ SELECT trace_event_id, name FROM sys.trace_events; /* XE */ SELECT pkg.name AS PkgName, pkg.description as PkgDescr, obj.name as EventName, obj.description as EventDescr FROM sys.dm_xe_objects obj inner join sys.dm_xe_packages pkg ON pkg.guid = obj.package_guid WHERE obj.object_type='event' and pkg.name NOT IN ('qds', 'ucs', 'SecAudit');
If I am using XE and have an Availability Group, I can track availability_replica_state_change to see what the replica’s previous state and current state are – such as when a replica goes from a secondary to primary. If using SQL Server 2014’s buffer pool extensions, I can count how many times pages are read, using buffer_pool_extension_pages_read, or when they are removed, using buffer_pool_extension_pages_evicted. Even without any special features, XE lets me dig deeper into what SQL Server is doing. I can track async_io_requested and async_io_completed events, which I can’t do with Profiler. You can count page_split as it’s happening, to see if that’s causing a performance problem. XE has many, many events!
2. XE gives you multiple options to save and view the data. With Profiler, you can view the action live on-screen, and risk bringing the server down, or you can save it to a trc file and view it after the fact. XE allows you to choose one or more targets for each session, and they allow a lot of flexibility.
You can “View Live Data” and watch the events you’ve selected scroll across the screen (although I still wouldn’t recommend this approach). You can save your events to a file on disk, then review them later. You can also collect data in ways Profiler didn’t allow. For example, using the event_counter target allows you count the instances of an event happening – while it’s happening, no going back and having to aggregate after the fact. The histogram target is similar, but allows you to put the event in groups – again, as it’s happening, not later. You can also use the pair_matching target to find related events that match.
3. XE sessions are easily scriptable & portable. Yes, you could script out a Profiler session. Does this really make sense to you?
An XE script is simple to read and understand. I can create this once and deploy it to any server.
It’s time to consider moving away from Profiler and using Extended Events. In a future release of SQL Server, Profiler will be gone – so learn more about Extended Events starting today!
I’m a fan of SQL Server’s transaction log shipping. It works in Standard Edition, it’s relatively simple to set up, and you can even make your log shipping secondary readable using STANDBY mode.
I’ve worked with some pretty cool, complex log shipping environments over the years. In one case, we had multiple log shipping secondaries and a load balancer involved to support a full fledged reporting application. It worked pretty well– with a lot of careful scripting and support.
But there’s a few things you should know before you decide to implement this yourself.
“Readable” Log Shipping Secondaries Are Just a Point in Time
Although a log shipping secondary can be made readable using “STANDBY” mode, it’s just readable to a specific point in time. If I bring the secondary online at 2 pm, users can only read data through the last committed transaction in the last log file I restored. And…
Everyone’s Kicked Out When You Restore Transaction Logs
The database can’t be read when you’re refreshing data. You must kick out any users (or not refresh the data).
Logs Restore More Slowly if You Use STANDBY (Readable) Mode
If you’re reading from the secondary, you usually want those periods where it’s unavailable to be as short as possible. If you have a lot of log files to restore, you will probably find that performance of the restores is better if you’re in “NORECOVERY” mode while you’re doing the restores, and then switch back to “STANDBY” at the end of the process so the data can be read.
This can be done, it just can take some fancy scripting.
You will also need to add monitoring for slow restores if getting the database online is critical. If your log shipping secondaries get behind, it’s possible to use differential backups to catch them up.
You can’t use “STANDBY” Mode if your Secondary is a Higher Version
I was a little sad when I learned this one years ago. I had a SQL Server 2005 instance that was the log shipping primary. The log shipping secondary was made readable so that developers could check out production data if needed without having access to production.
Our upgrade plan was to get SQL Server 2008 on the least critical servers first — and that developer access server was one of them. But I couldn’t use STANDBY mode on the log shipping secondary with it as a higher version: it failed with an error like this…
This backup cannot be restored using WITH STANDBY because a database upgrade is needed. Reissue the RESTORE without WITH STANDBY.
When SQL Server brings a database online in a higher version, it needs to make some modifications to that database. This breaks with STANDBY mode because the database is read only.
An aside: unfortunately, the Enterprise Edition feature of a database snapshot doesn’t overcome this limitation if you try to use it against a database mirror to make it readable to a point in time. You get a different error, but it’s the same theme:
Msg 946, Level 14, State 1, Line 1 Cannot open database 'MirrorMePlease_snap' version 661. Upgrade the database to the latest version. Msg 1823, Level 16, State 7, Line 1 A database snapshot cannot be created because it failed to start.
Auto-Create Statistics Doesn’t Work in the User Database in STANDBY mode
If you’re using your log shipping secondary for reporting, SQL Server can’t automatically create statistics in the database, regardless of your settings. (That read only thing keeps coming up.)
In SQL Server 2012 and higher, this isn’t a huge problem because temporary statistics can get created in tempdb. This new feature was added when Availability Groups came along, but it also works for log shipping secondaries, which is pretty awesome.
Security is a Hoot. And by that, I Mean a Problem. (Less So in SQL Server 2014)
In many scenarios, you only want to grant read access to a user on the log shipping secondary database. You do not want that user to be able to access the primary. This is tricky.
To read from a database, you need a login with an associated database user. To grant reads to a log shipping secondary database, you can create all the logins you want– but the log shipping secondary database is read only, so you can’t create a user in it.
Up through SQL Server 2012, here’s the two main options I’ve seen people use (there are a couple more in the comments):
- Grant access via stored procedures or views in another database. This will require enabling cross database ownership chaining, which can be a treacherous security road. And a lot of things could go wrong over time as tables are added, modified, and dropped.
- Create the login on the log shipping primary instance with the associated database user, and disable the login on the log shipping primary instance. If you’re using SQL authentication, you may have to use a special script to transfer the SID to the log shipping secondary to get it all to work.
Option 2 isn’t terrible, it’s just awkward to have a bunch of disabled logins. Someone can misunderstand and accidentally enable them or delete them, and then… oops.
Using CONNECT ANY DATABASE and SELECT ALL USER SECURABLES IN SQL SERVER 2014
As of SQL Server 2014, you have a new option because of a couple of new security features. You can do this:
CREATE SERVER ROLE readeverything; GO GRANT CONNECT ANY DATABASE TO readeverything; GO GRANT SELECT ALL USER SECURABLES TO readeverything; GO
When you add a member to this role, they can read anything. I tested and this worked for me against a logshipping secondary in standby mode just fine.
CONNECT ANY DATABASE is designed to allow access to connect to databases that exist now and databases that exist in the future, so this really IS permissions to read everything, including system databases– only use this if that’s appropriate.
It’s Complicated, but It’s Still Cool
If you’re clever and dedicated, you can work around these issues and use log shipping to provide read access to either applications or users who shouldn’t be reading from the live production copy of data.
Brent Says: Even with AlwaysOn AGs out, I think I’ve said the words “use log shipping” more in the last two years than I’ve said in the rest of my career. It’s useful, cheap, flexible, and nearly bulletproof.
Here’s some of the reasons companies usually virtualize their SQL Servers:
- Cost savings on hardware
- Cost savings on Windows OS licensing
- Cost savings on SQL Server licensing
- Protect against the failure of a single hardware element
- Leverage extended features for Disaster Recovery
- Automatic load balancing across multiple hosts
- Easier hardware replacement/migration
When we perform a SQL Critical Care® on a virtualized SQL Server, we often ask, “Are we actually getting those benefits?”
1. Cost savings on hardware – do you find yourself putting one SQL Server guest on each host, isolating them to make sure they get the performance they need? If so, you’re not actually saving money on hardware.
2. Cost savings on Windows OS licensing – as a standard, some companies license all their virtualization hosts with Windows Server Datacenter Edition in order to get unlimited virtualization rights. However, if you’re only running one guest per host (or just a few), then you’re not saving money here either.
3. Cost savings on SQL Server licensing – for this one, you’ve gotta do a little bit harder work. Add up the licensing you’re spending now, and look at what it would take to run similar instances on bare metal hardware. Keep in mind that you can still buy dual-socket, quad-core servers that are insanely powerful (768GB RAM, dozens of SSDs), thereby keeping your SQL licensing lower.
4. Protect against the failure of a single hardware element – on the free versions of most hypervisors, you don’t get automatic failover protection. You can manually start up a guest on another host with some human intervention. Is that enough for the business, or are they assuming it’ll all happen automatically with only a minute or two of downtime – even when you’re not around? Or even worse, do you not have enough hardware horsepower to start up your biggest SQL Server guest somewhere else if its host fails? Or, heaven forbid, are you using local SSDs with virtualization, thereby missing the entire ability to move guests around?
5. Leverage extended features for Disaster Recovery – VMware and Hyper-V have killer features (and third-party app extensions) that make it easy to replicate a guest from one site to another. Are you using those, or have you given up because SQL Server’s data change rates are too high, and your network can’t keep up?
6. Automatic load balancing across multiple hosts – VMware’s Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) will automatically shuffle VMs around between hosts based on resource utilization. It’s an amazing way to react to performance issues with less human intervention. You should be using it.
7. Easier hardware replacement/migration – because SQL Server licensing is priced by the CPU core, and it’s super expensive, many shops choose to improve their virtualization host hardware annually. Whenever they need more capacity in their VMware or Hyper-V clusters, they drop in a couple of new hosts, vMotion or LiveMigrate the most expensive per-core guests over to those hosts (thereby taking advantage of today’s faster processors), and then give everybody else the hand-me-downs. It’s easy to do even live during the daytime. However, some shops are still running their SQL Servers on CPUs that might get featured on Antiques Roadshow.
If you’re not leveraging at least some of these virtualization features, and you don’t plan to…then what was the point of virtualizing to begin with? Jump on in – the water’s fine!
If you’re using AGs, don’t apply these patches:
- SQL 2012 SP2 CU3
- SQL 2012 SP2 CU4
- SQL 2014 CU5
until you read this Microsoft post about a breaking bug.
Your AG may stop synchronizing due to blocking between user queries and a system session. The fix is to disable automatic failover, restart the primary, and enable automatic failover again.
You’re a developer or a DBA, and you’re comfortable writing queries to get the data you need. You’re much less comfortable trying to design the right indexes for your database server.
Join me on Wednesday, Jan 28, for a free one-hour session explaining how the SQL Server engine looks at your indexes and builds your query results.
- The differences between clustered and nonclustered indexes
- How (and when) to make a covering index
- The basics of execution plans
- What determines sargability
- What SQL Server uses to estimate the memory your query needs
- What happens when those estimates are wrong
- And it’s all demoed with these Stack Overflow database pages (PDF)
I’m not kidding when I say it’s the best session I’ve ever written, and I’m really proud of it. This session is normally $29 in our online store, but thanks to Idera, this live version will be free. Register now.
When we first started our company, we laid out our goals in a shared Google Doc. We wrote about what we wanted to do, how we wanted to treat our employees and customers, and the growth numbers we wanted to achieve. One of our original goals was to hire one consultant per year.
In 2012, it was Jes Schultz Borland, and in 2013, it was Doug Lane. We held off adding a consultant in 2014 because we wanted to be financially able to hire two consultants at once in the next round. I’m not saying we WILL, I’m just saying we wanted to be ABLE to. See, one of our other goals is to be able to survive a 9/11-type business event – no incoming revenue for several months, and know that we can still pay everybody’s paychecks for that duration. That means we’re a much slower-growing consulting company, but everybody involved can sleep soundly at night.
In 2013, we also added a part-time admin assistant – my wife, Erika. She was previously a legal assistant at a downtown Chicago law firm, managing administrative and office work, so she’s been able to clean up a lot of our messes. (Scheduling training classes, selling videos via credit cards, helping out our accountants, and sending out Christmas cards with stickers requires a surprisingly high amount of time.) Having Erika on the team has really helped free us up to focus on the technology parts of the job that we love.
In 2014, we realized that just like admin duties, handling incoming sales requests had become a pretty big chunk of time too. Do the numbers: we have 5 consultants, and our main product is our 4-day SQL Critical Care®. That means we sign 4-5 new clients per week, which translates into hundreds of clients per year. That’s a lot of emails to answer, contracts to sign, and engagements to schedule. I do that work today in my spare time – and oddly, I really enjoy it – but if we’re going to scale this little shop, we’re gonna have to bring in a sales pro to manage this process full time.
So on our Employment Opportunities page, we added a
job description for our new salesperson.
We’re looking for a salesperson with experience. If you’ve been working with SQL Server for the last several years, and only SQL Server, it’s probably not a good fit. (That means most, if not all, of our readers, ironically.) However, you might know someone who’s a good fit, so we’re putting this out there.
We’re excited to bring them on board and get our sales process polished – because hey, that means we can hire more consultants and trainers, woohoo!
Update Jan 27 – we’ve got the resumes we need. Thanks everybody!