At some point you’re going to be confronted with an Oracle installation or even just an Oracle DBA. Communicating with a DBA who works on a different product can be difficult, it’s like speaking US English and having a conversation with a native English speaker from Scotland. The words are the same, but they have different meanings.
While this is by no means an exhaustive list, it will help SQL Server DBAs have a meaningful conversation with their Oracle colleagues.
Oracle refers to the database as the data files on a disk that store data.
The set of memory structures and system processes that manage database files. Basically, the instance is executables and memory. Oracle has some different terms to separate out plan cache, buffer pool, and other concepts. But at a high level, executables and memory make a database instance.
So far things seem the same. Up until Oracle 12c, though, these two concepts were close to one in the same – one instance of Oracle housed one database (things like Oracle RAC not included). One thing to take note of - Oracle on Windows runs within one process, just like SQL Server. On Linux, however, there will be multiple Oracle processes each with a clearly defined purpose.
A tablespace is roughly analogous to a filegroup. You can create tables and indexes inside a tablespace. Like a filegroup, you can take tablespace backups separate from the rest of the database.
Unlike SQL Server, each tablespace can have many different options – some tablespaces can be logged while others are not. During tablespace creation, DBAs can manage a variety of features of each tablespace including a separate undo tablespace (see below), per user disk quotas, logging, or even on-disk block size (this can be helpful when dealing with LOB data).
In short, Oracle DBAs can customize database behavior at the tablespace level as well as at the database level. This can be useful for controlling archive data performance, blobs, or managing other aspects of storage.
Every user is created with a default tablespace. The default tablespace defines where that user’s tables and indexes will be created unless a different location is specified. This is like setting up a default filegroup, but it can be set per user instead of per database, and it provides finer grained control. A default tablespace is not like a default schema in SQL Server – users can create objects with different schemas inside their default tablespace. This isn’t related to object ownership like schemas in SQL Server, it’s related to object placement on disk.
You know how SQL Server has one tempdb? Within Oracle, database administrators can specify a different temporary work space on a user by user basis. Fast OLTP workloads can have access to SSD temporary tablespace while data warehouse queries and ETL jobs can have their own temporary tablespace that uses rotational disks. Heck, you could even allocate PCI-Express storage for executives’ temporary tablespace if they needed lightning fast joins or just wanted to foot the bill for PCI-Express storage.
Oracle uses MVCC by default (in SQL Server you’d call it
READ COMMITTED SNAPSHOT ISOLATION). Row versions have to be stored somewhere, but there’s no tempdb. The undo tablespace is used to track changes that have been made and to put the database back into a consistent state if a transaction is rolled back. Although it is possible to create multiple undo tablespaces, only one undo tablespace will be used any single Oracle instance at a time.
If only one tablespace can be active per Oracle instance, why have multiple undo tablespaces? Oracle RAC can contain multiple Oracle instances reading the same database. Each of the Oracle RAC instances can have a separate undo tablespace. If this sounds confusing, don’t worry – Oracle RAC is complex and deserves a separate blog post.
Once upon a time, Oracle DBAs had to configure the undo tablespace by hand. This was called the rollback segment. Poorly configured rollback segments led to “snapshot too old” errors and grumpy DBAs. If you ever encounter Oracle using a rollback segment, kindly ask the DBA why they aren’t using automatic rollback management (undo tablespaces).
Redo log files
It’s a transaction log file! A key Oracle difference is that everything gets logged, even the undo information. Redo log files are used just like SQL Server transaction log files.
Like SQL Server’s transaction log, Oracle can have multiple redo log files. These log files are written to in a circular fashion – the log files are written to in order and, when all log files are full, Oracle will circle around to the beginning again.
Unlike SQL Server, having multiple redo log files is the preferred way to manage Oracle logging. By default, there are two groups of redo log files, but this can and should be configured, based on RPO/RTO needs.
Archived redo log files
These are redo log files that have been backed up. There are a number of ways to have Oracle automatically manage creating backups of redo log files that vary from manual to completely automated. If the disks storing these files fills up, Oracle will not be able to write to the data files – active redo log files can’t be archived any more. To ensure safety, writes are stopped.
Oracle temporary tables are similar to SQL Server’s with one major exception – they’re statically defined. Even though an Oracle temp table definition will stick around until dropped, the data only persists for the duration of a session (or transaction if the table is configured that way).
The data inside a temporary table exists only for the current session – you can’t view data in another session’s temp table. The upside is that temp table metadata is always available for other users to query.
Oracle backups are very different from SQL Server backups – they’re both more simple and more complex than SQL Server at the same time. Many Oracle shops use a tool call Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) to handle database and redo log backups, archival, and even the expiration and deletion of backup files.